KODIFIKASI HADIS DALAM PANDANGAN SUNNIY DAN SHI’IY

Hanif Fathoni

Abstract


Kodifikasi hadis memerlukan waktu yang cukup panjang dan diwarnai persaingan politik antar sekte atau kelompok dalam islam. Persaingan politik ini menimbulkan perpecahan pemikiran umat Islam menjadi dua kelompok besar yaitu Ahlu al-Sunnah (Sunniy) dan Shi>’iy (pengikut Ali). Sunniy dan syiah sering berbenturan dalam memahami hadis. Keduanya memiliki perbedaan yang berakar dari pemahaman konsep hadis atau sunnah, walaupun antara Sunniy dan Shi>’iy tidak terdapat perbedaan pandangan dalam menilai kedudukan hadis sebagai sumber hukum kedua setelah al-Quran. Penelitian akan mengkaji tentang kodifikasi hadis dari sudut pandang Sunniy dan Shi>’iy. Selanjutnya, data penelitian yang terkumpul dianalisis dengan menggunakan pendekatan historis dan perbandingan. Menurut kalangan Sunniy, periwayatan hadis dalam keadaan belum tertulis dan terkodifikasikan dengan baik ketika ditinggal wafat Nabi Muhammad SAW. Beliau belum memerintahkan sahabat untuk melakukannya sekaligus menghindari tercampurnya al-Quran dan Hadis. Bagi Shi>’iy, kodifikasi hadis sudah ada sejak zaman Rasulullah SAW dan bahkan mereka meyakini bahwa Sayyidina Ali ibn Abi T{alib telah menulisnya.

Kata Kunci: Hadis, Sunniy, Shi>’ah

Abstract

The codification of the hadith took a long time and was colored by political competition between sects or groups in Islam. This political competition led to a split in Muslim thought into two major groups, namely Ahlu al-Sunnah (Sunniy) and Shi>'iy (followers of Ali). Sunni and Shi'a often clash in understanding the hadith. Both have differences that are rooted in the understanding of the concept of hadith or sunnah, although between Sunniy and Shi> 'iy there are no different views in assessing the position of hadith as the second source of law after the Koran. This research will examine the codification of hadith from the Sunniy and Shi> 'iy point of view. Furthermore, the collected research data were analyzed using historical and comparative approaches. According to Sunniy circles, the narration of the hadith was not written and codified properly when the Prophet Muhammad died. He has not ordered his friends to do so and at the same time avoid mixing the Koran and Hadith. For Shi> 'iy, the codification of hadith has existed since the time of Rasulullah SAW and they even believe that Sayyidina Ali ibn Abi T{alib wrote it.

Keywords: Hadith, Sunniy, Shi>’ah


Keywords


sejarah; kodifikasi; sunniy; shi'iy

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